Place of Birth: Port Hilford, Guysborough County
Mother's Name: Sara Ella (Hewitt) Mills
Father's Name: David R. Mills
Date of Enlistment: October 21, 1915 at Halifax, NS
Regimental Number: 488679
Force: Canadian Expeditionary Force
Regiments: 63rd Regiment; 17th Reserve Battalion; 15th Reserve Battalion; 28th Battalion (Northwest Regiment - Saskatchewan)
Location of service: England, France & Belgium
Occupation at Enlistment: Wireman
Marital Status at Enlistment: Single
Next of Kin: Mr. David R. Mills, Gottingen St., Halifax
*: Promoted to Corporal while serving with 63rd Halifax Rifles, three months after enlisting over overseas service with the CEF. In September 1916, John requested to "revert to ranks" and served as a Private for the duration of the war.
|Souvenir Portrait of Pte. John Hewitt Mills|
In recognition of his military experience, John was promoted to the rank of Corporal on January 12, 1916. Ten days later, he boarded the SS Missinabie for the journey to England. Disembarking at Plymouth, England eight days later, John spent six weeks awaiting placement with an existing regiment. On March 13, he was transferred to the 17th Reserve Battalion at East Sandling, in preparation for assignment with a front line unit. Shortly after his transfer, he assigned $ 20 of his monthly pay to his older sister, Libbie Mills, Gottingen St., Halifax.
Like many recruits, John spent several months in England before finally being placed with a fighting unit in France. Perhaps in an effort to hasten such a move, he requested to "revert to ranks" on September 3, 1916 and was transferred to the 28th Battalion (Northwest Regiment), a Saskatchewan unit. Embarking for France on the same day as his transfer, John spent two weeks at the Canadian Base Depot, Le Havre, France before the call came to join the regiment in the field on September 19.
|Pte. John Hewitt Mills' 28th Battalion cap badge|
Almost immediately, John was introduced to the frightening reality of trench warfare. The battalion's war diary reported heavy shelling of its sector by enemy artillery and "great activity sniping" by both sides on September 25. An enemy assault on the 28th's position was "repulsed", prompting "heavy retaliation shelling" by German artillery later in the day. John was buried in earth by a "shell explosion" and suffered a "sprained back", but was able to remain on duty. The following day, he would not be so fortunate.
In the early morning of September 26, the battalion endured "heavy hostile bombardment lasting half an hour". At 12:35 pm, Allied artillery launched an "intense bombardment" of German trenches in preparation for a general assault along British lines. However, the advance in the trenches occupied by the 28th was cancelled, due to the "tank being put out of action in [their] sector prior to advance".
German forces quickly responded, occupying the trenches opposite the 28th in large numbers during the afternoon. The battalion war diary noted that "snipers [were] very active… as the enemy had but slight cover", and estimated that 50 casualties were inflicted on the enemy. The day's activity, however, inflicted casualties on both sides. In the exchange of fire, John suffered a shrapnel wound to the neck and was immediately evacuated for medical treatment. When the 28th was finally relieved on September 29, the regiment had taken a total of 142 casualties during four days' fighting at the front.
|Postcard sent home to family by Pte. Mills|
On January 24, 1917, John was finally deemed fit for military duty and was transferred to the 15th Reserve Battalion at Dilgate, Hastings. The call to the front came on February 14, and John was once again assigned to the 28th Battalion. He proceeded to Le Havre, France the following day, but remained there for another two months before rejoining the battalion in the field on April 16, almost seven months after his departure.
The week before John's return, the 28th had participated in the successful attack on Vimy Ridge and was still on duty in the area. The battalion spent the remainder of April and May near Vimy in a rotation of front line, support and reserve duty before moving to Haillicourt, France on June 1 for a period of rest and training. The men participated in a variety of sports competitions with nearby battalions during this time. A war diary entry observed that "the Battalion has reached a good standard in Training, Discipline and Appearance…. In every way the rest has been a great help after 2 months of heavy fighting since April 9."
|New Years' card sent by Pte. Mills to his future wife's mother|
In early November 1917, the 28th relocated to Belgium, along with other Canadian units, to participate in the final stages of the assault on Passchendaele from November 5 - 8. There was little enthusiasm for this assignment amongst the men. The battalion's Major Alexander Ross recalled: "It was the one job we went into with no real heart. I had never seen my men so depressed as we moved into the [Ypres] Salient. They knew what the Salient was like, always had been like. It was the graveyard of everybody." Battlefield conditions were atrocious, with soldiers "knee deep, and in places waist deep, in mud and water".
The 28th participated in the final assault on the village of Passchendaele, suffering 268 casualties in the fighting. The men were no doubt relieved to return to the much less treacherous trenches of the Lens sector in mid-November. It is quite likely that John's days at Passchendaele were amongst the most difficult of his combat experience.
The 28th was relieved of front line duty for one month of rest and training on December 22, 1917. John was fortunate to receive two weeks' leave to the United Kingdom during this time, departing on December 31 and returning on January 15, 1918. His time in England was a welcome reprieve from the cold weather - not to mention the dangers - of the front lines. Two weeks after returning from leave, John accompanied the battalion back to front line duty near Lens on January 28. The regiment later relocated to trenches near Arras. During the months of March and April 1918, Canadian soldiers withstood the impact of the German "spring offensive", ceding territory but eventually halting the enemy's advance.
|Postcard note sent home while on leave in London, January 12, 1918|
In late July, the battalion relocated to the area of Amiens. As part of the 6th Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, the 28th prepared for a major attack on a strategic German position close to the Paris-Amiens rail line. Clayton Mills' 29th Battalion also participated, with tragic consequences for John's cousin. The attack on Amiens commenced in the early morning hours of August 8, with the 28th Battalion assuming a position on the right and the 29th on the left. The following day - August 9 - 6th Brigade command ordered an assault on the village of Rosieres. The attack was launched at 11 am under cover of a "light shrapnel barrage, and the fire of as many guns as could be brought to bear". The 28th was to provide support for an advance led by the 29th and 31st Battalions. Neither of the units flanking their positions were prepared to attack at the same time, leaving both battalions badly exposed to enemy fire. To further complicate the situation, the anticipated tank support did not reach the battlefield in time. Nevertheless, the two battalions launched their assault at 11 am, immediately encountering intense enemy machine gun fire.
The 29th Battalion advanced "despite severe casualties", one of whom was John's cousin Clayton, killed in action on that day. The 31st Battalion, however, was held up by "withering machine gun fire". As the Germans prepared a counter-attack, the 28th was sent into the fray to assist the 31st. The battalion's war diary noted that several of the 28th's officers organized attacks on German machine gun positions before receiving official orders to advance in support of their comrades.
At 1:30 pm, the 28th's Lewis gun successfully halted the German counter-attack, while two companies moved forward in support of the 31st. The 28th held the centre line of the advance until relieved late in the afternoon by the 27th Battalion. The following day, the 28th resumed its reserve position in support of the advancing attack and was assigned the task of defending the village of Rosieres from possible counter-attack.
On the night of August 11-12, John and the men of the 28th were relieved of front line duty, allowing the officers to take stock of what had transpired. Three officers and 20 "other ranks" were killed during the battle, with 3 officers and 101 "other ranks" wounded and 3 men missing in action. Their fearless action in support of the 31st not only resulted in the capture of 175 prisoners. The men of the 28th had "taken out" or captured an estimated 50 to 75 German machine gun positions during the August 9 fighting, rescuing the 31st Battalion and ensuring that the attack continued to move forward. On August 15, battalion officers forwarded to Brigade headquarters a list of names for honours and awards as a result of this action. Pte. John Hewitt Mills was amongst the men recommended for the Military Medal in recognition of their role in the attack.
|Military Medal awarded to Pte. John Hewitt Mills|
While John and his comrades no doubt enjoyed a break from duty in the front line trenches, they were still vulnerable to enemy attack. The battalion war diary reported "heavy gas shell concentration" in the area occupied by "D" Company during the night of September 8, with several other companies also hit by gas shells. The attack was a precursor of what John and the men would face after returning to the front lines later that same night, in relief of the 29th Battalion. During the afternoon and evening of September 9, the war diary states that "some gas shells [were] thrown over by the enemy".
The following day - September 10, 1918 - the "situation [was] normal, weather wet. Usual enemy shelling over [the] area, including [a] fair amount of gas shells." One "other ranks" soldier died of wounds, an additional soldier was wounded, and 6 "other ranks" were gassed in the attack. Pte. John Hewitt Mills was one of the six soldiers to suffer the effects of the gas shells fired at the 28th that day.
John was evacuated and admitted to the 54th General Hospital at Boulogne for treatment. His symptoms did not appear to be serious, and he was transferred to the 1st Canadian Depot on October 1. Perhaps - as later events suggest - John was not completely "honest" with medical personnel in describing his medical condition, hoping to quickly return to his regiment. Nevertheless, he spent the remainder of the month with reserve units in France before finally rejoining the 28th in the field on November 3.
|Congratulatory note on receiving the Military Medal|
John initially received care from the 6th Co. Field Ambulance before being evacuated to the 7th Canadian Casualty Centre on November 19. He was "invalided" as sick and posted to the Saskatchewan Regimental Depot, Bramshott, England on November 28. Upon arrival, John was first admitted to the Graylingwell War Hospital, Chichester before being transferred to Princess Patricia Canadian Red Cross Hospital, Cooden Camp, Bexhill on December 4. Finally, John was moved to King's Canadian Red Cross Special Hospital, Bushey Park on December 9, where he underwent a thorough medical examination.
Medical records state that John was experiencing pain in the portion of the body over the heart and lower chest, in addition to shortness of breath. As he had enjoyed an active childhood and experienced no health issues prior to enlistment, both symptoms were attributed to poison gas exposure. All other vital signs were "normal". John remained under medical care until January 22, 1919, by which time he was capable of performing 45 minutes of exercise and a four-mile march without difficulty. He was therefore transferred to the Canadian Convalescent Depot at Bramshott, where he remained for 10 days before being attached to the Canadian Convalescent Hospital at Busley Park.
|Congratulatory note that accompanied Pte. Mills Military Medal|
John Hewitt Mills passed away at Camp Hill Hospital, Halifax on May 31, 1963 at age 68 after a lengthy illness, and was laid to rest in St. John's Cemetery, Halifax. For his distinguished service to his country, John received the British War Medal and Victory Medal in addition to the Military Medal earned on the battlefield at Amiens. Like many of the other men of his generation, John placed himself in situations of great personal peril at a very young age without hesitation, choices that deserve our respect and acknowledgement.
Lindsay, Robert. 28th (Northwest) Battalion Headquarters. 2006.
Regimental documents of Pte. John Hewitt Mills, No. 488679. Library and Archives Canada. RG 150, Accession 1992-93/166, Box 6216 - 39. Available online.
War Diaries of the First World War: 28th Canadian Infantry Battalion. Library and Archives Canada. RG9 , Militia and Defence , Series III D-3 , Volume 4936 , Reel T-10740 File : 426; and RG9 , Militia and Defence , Series III-D-3 , Volume 4935 , Reel T-10739-10740 File : 425. Available online.
I am particularly grateful to Mr. Robert 'Bob' Mills, Windsor Junction, NS, son of Pte. John Hewitt Mills. Bob provided all of the images used in this post, in addition to valuable information on his father's life and military career.